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- 1. Purpose of Grading Test Scores The most compelling reason why teachers grade students test scores is due to the reality that they have to. (AIRASIAN,1994)

2. Informational To communicate students subject matter achievement 3. Administrative To make decision regarding students class standing 4. Motivational To encourage students to exert academic effort 5. Guidance To identify students who need special services like tutoring and remedial instruction 6. According to Ornstein,1990 7. Absolute Grading Grading based on the normal curve Norm-referenced grading Graded based on the mean or average of the test scores. 8. Grades in the aforementioned scheme come in letters such as A, B, C, D, and F, or numbers, like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 9. A teacher/instructor who is strictly following this scheme of grading based on the normal curve is expected to give 10% of his students As, 20% Bs, 40% Cs, 20% Ds, and 10% Fs. 10. Disadvantage (Ornstein,1990) Error of Leniency. 11. Relative Grading Criterion-referenced grading Scores are transmuted to percentage rating based on minimum requirements for passing or predetermined standard, based on the teacher judgement. 12. This type of grading is premised on the assumption that a students performance is independent of the performance of the other students in class. Grading using relative standards will definitely not be precise compared with grading using the normal curve because it will be easier for students to get higher grades 13. Qualitative Rating Grades are presented in the form of qualitative description of students performance, such as excellent, very good, good, fair, and needs improvement. 14. Numerical Grade Numbers such as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are used in assigning grades to test scores and students performance. Commonly used in colleges and universities. 15. Percentage Rating Grades of 70%, 75%, 85% and the like are given to students test score and performance based on criteria for grading set by the teacher. 16. Formula 1 R=50 (TS/TI) + 50 Where R = rating in percentage TS = total score TI = total number of items 17. The use of that formula is premised on the idea that a student has to answer correctly 50% of the total number of test items. Moreover, the highest possible rating that a student can obtain here is 100% 18. Formula 2 R = (TS/TI) + 55 + 45 It is used when the teacher sets the lowest rating at 55% instead of 50%. It is implied from this formula that the student has to answer correctly at least 45% of the test items in order to get a passing grade 19. Formula 3 R = 40 (TS/TI) + 60 It is employed when a teacher sets the lowest rating at 60%, rather than at 55% or 50%. The assumption in this formula is that the student has to answer correctly 40% of the test items. 20. Variables to Consider in Deciding on the lowest base grade to use in converting raw scores to percentage rating Difficulty of the test The standard of the teacher The standard of the school 21. Owing to the possibility of many students getting failing grades when their scores are not within the desired percentage of correct answers (50% 45% or 40%), an alternative method based on normal distribution of scores. 22. 1. Arrange test scores from highest to lowest 2. Get the highest and lowest scores. 3. Determine the grade you will give the highest score. 4. Determine the levels of ratings to be used. 23. 4. Get the total range of the scores, using the formula R= HS LS 5. Determine the interval of scores by dividing the total range of scores by the levels of rating. 6. Prepare a transmutation table showing the scores, with their corresponding percentage ratings. Use the interval in step 4 in determining the lower and upper limits of each class. Begin with the lowest class interval.